John D. Foubert, Ph.D.
How Many People Use Pornography?
- 94% of men and 87% of women have seen pornography at some point in their lifetime (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- Among users of Amazon.com, 92% of men and 60% of women viewed some form of pornography in the previous month. The three primary kinds of pornography consumed were written pornography, pictures, and videos. Videos were consumed most often, but women were much more likely to consume written pornography than men (Solano, et al., 2020).
- About half of 8th graders have viewed pornography. Such viewing made early sexual debut, unsafe sex, and multiple sexual partners more likely (Lin, et al., 2020).
- On average, boys see pornography first at the age of 13 and girls at the age of 17 (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- Pornography use increased by 11% during the Covid pandemic (Mestre-Bach et al, 2020).
- Data released by the world’s most popular Internet porn site, reveal that in 2019 alone, there were over 42 billion visits to its website (Pornhub, 2019).
- If you watched all the new videos uploaded in just one year on the world’s most popular pornography site, it would take you 168 years to watch them all (McTavish, 2020).
- Today, pornography is most often accessed through cell phones (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- 64% of adult men and 42% of adult women view pornography at least monthly (Digital Journal, 2014).
- 63% of young men (18-30) view pornography once a week or more. 79% view it at least monthly (Barna, 2014).
- 19% of young women (18-30) view porn once a week or more; 34% view it at least monthly (Barna, 2014).
- In the 1970s, 45% of young adult men viewed an X rated movie at least annually (Price et al., 2015).
- In the 1990s, found that 61% of young adult men were viewing porn, just before the Internet boom (Price et al., 2015).
- In the 2000s, with the Internet, 86% of young adult men were viewing pornography (Braun-Courville & Rojas, 2009; Carroll et al., 2008).
- In the 1970s, 28% of young adult women had viewed an X rated movie at least annually (Price et al., 2015).
- In the 2000s, 36% of young adult women had viewed pornography (Price et al., 2015).
- Well over two-thirds of 15-17 year old adolescents have seen porn websites when they did not intend to access them (Kaiser Family Foundation, 2001).
- Between 2008 and 2011, exposure to porn among boys under the age of 13 jumped from 14% to 49%. Boys’ daily use more than doubled (Sun et al, 2014).
- The average child sees Internet pornography for the first time at age 11 (Dines, 2010; DeKeseredy & Corsianos, 2016).
What is in Pornography?
- Over the past decade the levels of violent porn, gore porn, child porn, and racist acts depicted in porn have increased exponentially (DeKeseredy, 2015).
- During the last decade, interest in pornography featuring teens (above and below the age of consent) has significantly increased (Walker, Makin, & Morczek, 2016).
- Female performers in pornographic video clips are very likely to express pleasure when aggression (such as spanking, forced vaginal or anal penetration, and forced gagging) is directed toward them; particularly if the performer is a teenager. Such videos perpetuate the notion that women enjoy being subject to aggressive and demeaning sexual behaviors (Shor, 2018).
- On just one pornography site, 33.5 Billion visitors accessed pornography in 2018. Daily visits to the site now exceed 100 million. The site logs 962 searches a second. Every minute 63,992 new visitors access its content (pornhub.com).
- The more degrading pornography men watch, the more likely they are to objectify the women in that pornography (Skorska, Hodson & Hoffarth, 2018).
Is Pornography Violent?
- Both pornography and alcohol consumption are unique predictors of sexual assault victimization for college females; the combined effect of pornography and alcohol dramatically increases the odds of victimization. One reason for this is that pornography minimizes sexually aggressive acts (de Heer, et al., 2020).
- Men are more likely than women to become aroused by pornographic images featuring rape. Men who equate sexuality with expression of aggression and power were more likely to prefer rape porn than other men (Carvalho & Rosa, 2020).
- With increasingly high use of porn, it becomes more likely that men will be likely to rape, likely to commit sexual assault, be sexually entitled, and have hostility toward women (Goodson, et al., 2020).
- Men who consume more pornography, particularly male-dominant pornography, are more likely to use sexual force in their own relationships (De Heer et al., 2020).
- Violence against women in pornography is commonly seen. For example, 72% of men and 46% of women have seen pornography where a man ejaculated on a woman’s face (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- Rape porn has been seen by 21% of men and 11% of women (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- BDSM porn has been seen by 45% of men and 33% of women (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- People often imitate what they have seen in pornography. For example, 20% of men and 12% of women have chocked someone during sex, 11% of men and 21% of women have been chocked during sex, and 48% of men have ejaculated on a woman’s face (Herbenick et al., 2020).
- Men’s consumption of pornography, particularly violent pornography, is associated with more aggressive behavior toward female partners. This relationship is even stronger when the man is sexist, feels justified in committing violence, and views women as sexual objects (Rodriguez & Fernandez-Gonzales, 2019).
- Women who use pornography are more likely to commit non-consensual sexual activity, particularly using emotional manipulation and deception of their male partners (Hughes et al., 2020).
- Pornography, especially violent pornography, shows association with increases in sexual assault related attitudes and past history of assaultive behavior (Bridges, 2019).
- The more pornography men use, the more they see women as objects, not as people (Seabrook et al., 2019).
- 45% of scenes in online pornography include at least one act of physical aggression. Spanking, gagging, slapping, hair pulling, and choking are the five most common forms of physical aggression (Fritz et al, 2020).
- In pornography with aggression, women are the target in 97% of the scenes, and their response to aggression was either neutral or positive and rarely negative. Men were the perpetrators of aggression against women in 76% of scenes (Fritz et al., 2020).
- 29% of male 10th graders have seen violent pornography (Rostad et al., 2019).
- 16% of female 10th graders have seen violent pornography (Rostad et al., 2019).
- Boys who have seen violent pornography are over twice as likely to report committing sexual violence and physical violence against a dating partner (Rostad et al., 2019).
- Girls who have seen violent pornography are more likely to experience sexual violence from a dating partner (Rostad et al., 2019).
- Among those who have seen “rough sex” in pornography (behaviors including hair pulling, spanking, scratching, biting, bondage, fisting, and double penetration) 91% wanted to take part in such behaviors and 82% had taken part in at least one of the behaviors. This lends credence to the assertion that watching pornography can lead to behavior, including behavior involving violence (Vogels & O’Sullivan, 2019).
- Rigorous laboratory studies find significant associations between watching pornography and inducing aggression supportive attitudes and behaviors (Bridges, 2019).
- Among women imprisoned for making child pornography, 60% had a history of sexual abuse while 46% reported physical abuse (Bickart et al., 2019).
- Pornography routinely depicts objectification of and violence against women. These images create abnormal sexual expectations, leading to making sexual advances that are unwanted, that can lead to violence (Sun, Ezzell, & Kendall, 2017).
- Men’s consumption of pornography impacts their views of women in measurable ways—including, but not limited to, objectification, acceptance of sexual mistreatment of women, and making unwanted sexual advances toward women (Mikorski & Syzmanski, 2017; Wright & Bae, 2015).
- Pornography use is most likely to lead to sexual violence when the pornography is especially violent, when the individual has peer support for sexual violence, and when the individual is hypermasculine and emphasizes impersonal sex (Hald & Malamuth, 2015).
- When compared to non-users, those exposed to softer forms of pornography have greater rape myth acceptance and a higher likelihood of committing rape (Romero-Sanchez, Toro-Garcia, Horvath, & Megias, 2017).
- When a man is already predisposed to aggression in other realms, violent pornography is particularly influential in producing increased sexual aggression (Baer, Kohut, & Fisher, 2015).
- Watching pornography often leads to acts of sexual violence or risky sexual behaviors such as multiple partners and unprotected sex (Van Oosten, Jochen, & Vandenbosch, 2017).
- Child abusers under age 21 report difficulty controlling their pornography use and often cite such use as a factor leading to their abuse of other children (McKibbin et al., 2017).
- Characteristics of men that are associated with a higher likelihood of viewing child pornography include ever having sex with a male, holding the perception of children as seductive, having friends who have watched child pornography, frequent pornography use, greater than average aggressive tendencies, ever viewing violent pornography, and engaging in sexually coercive behavior (Seto, Hermann, Kjellgren, Priebe, Svedin, & Langstrom, 2015).
- One reason why pornography use is connected to sexually coercive behavior is that viewers begin to develop sexual scripts that involve coercion and then seek to act them out in real life (Marshall, Miller, & Bouffard, 2018).
- Among men at high risk for committing acts of sexual aggression, watching violent pornography or child pornography adds to the risk for committing sexual assault, essentially adding fuel to the fire they have for committing sexual violence. In some cases, viewing pornography serves as a tipping point that leads an at risk person who might not act out to actually do so (Malamuth, 2018).
- The more men and women watch pornography, the less likely they are to intervene to help prevent a sexual assault from happening (Foubert & Bridges, 2017).
- 88% of the scenes in today’s mainstream pornography include violence, usually by a man toward a woman (Bridges et al., 2010).
- 95% of the time when a man hits a woman in pornography, she responds with pleasure or has no response at all (Bridges et al., 2010).
- 45% of the pornography clips on the Internet include at least one man ejaculating on a woman’s face (Gorman et al., 2010).
- Brain scans of men watching pornography react to women as if they are objects, not people. This leads to more violence against women (Eberstadt & Layden, 2010; Haslam & Loughnan, 2014).
- Porn use increases the likelihood a man will commit sexual violence, especially if he is impulsive and uses pornography frequently (Kingston et al, 2009).
- Over 100 studies show that pornography use is correlated with and is the cause of violence (Malamuth et al., 2000).
- 22 recent studies from 7 countries found that whether you use correlational, cross-sectional, or longitudinal research designs, pornography and sexual violence are directly connected (Wright et al., 2015).
- 500 studies of the connection between pornography and the broad category of “gender based violence” found that pornography use leads to gender-based violence (Waltman, 2014).
- Thousands of revenge porn websites allow men to upload naked or pornographic pictures of a former girlfriend or wife for everyone in the world to see (Hart, 2014).
- Children are particularly susceptible to what they see in pornography. The more they view it, the more they perform the violent acts they see in porn (Wright, 2014).
- Women in the pornography industry are three times as likely to have been sexually abused as children, 50% more likely to be living in poverty, and twice as likely as the average woman to have grown up in poverty (DeKeseredy & Corsianos, 2016; Waltman, 2014).
Is Pornography Racist?
- In the category of “Asian Women” pornography, over two thirds of aggressive acts were committed by men; 88% of the targets of aggressive acts were women (Yanyah & Bryant, 2016).
- In a study of mainstream pornography and aggression, black women were more often the target of aggression than white women (Fritz et al, 2020).
- Black men are more often portrayed as the perpetrators of aggression against women and are depicted as significantly less intimate with their partners compared to white men (Fritz et al., 2020).
- The most aggression in porn scenes occurs between black couples (Fritz et al., 2020).
What Happens if You Use A Lot of Porn?
- Many reasons are cited for relapse among non-religious people who are problematic pornography users. Frequently, emotional and relationship factors, in particular, overlap just prior to relapse. For example, emotional factors include feeling stressed about school, work, or relationships; feeling depressed partially due to lack of social interaction; feeling hopeless due to lack of success with romantic relationships; feeling frustrated with specific relationships; and/or with the actual struggle to stop using pornography. Relational factors can include frustrations with a romantic partner or with others as well (Rackham, 2020).
- Veterans are at a greater risk than men in the general population for developing problematic pornography use. Factors associated with veteran’s problematic pornography use include being younger, less educated, having depression, anxiety, PTSD, insomnia, and impulsivity. Problematic pornography use was characterized by distress about using pornography, excessive use, difficulty controlling use, and using it to avoid negative emotions (Shirk, et al., 2021).
- Two risk factors for problematic pornography use are having a substance use disorder and having a history of childhood abuse (Mauer-Vakil & Anees, 2020).
- Men who have problematic pornography use report that it gave them unrealistic expectations when it came to sex and sexuality, affected the way they viewed women, and led to diminished sexual function (Sniewski & Farvid, 2020).
- Frequent pornography use is associated with sexual dissatisfaction, greater preference for porn‐like sex, and relationship dissatisfaction (Miller et al., 2019).
- Problematic pornography use is associated with sexual functioning problems for both men and women (Bothe et al, 2021).
How Does Porn Affect Relationships?
- The more people use pornography, the more likely they are to experience a romantic break-up (Perry & Davis, 2017).
- Married people who view pornography are more likely to believe that their marriage is in trouble, more likely to discuss ending the marriage, and more likely to repeatedly break up compared to those who do not view pornography (Perry, 2020).
- Married people who view pornography are less likely to view their relationship as good or strong, less likely to feel like a team with their spouse, less likely to think their relationship makes them happy, and less likely to believe their relationship is nearly perfect than people who abstain (Perry, 2020).
- Married people who use pornography more frequently are less satisfied with their marriage (Perry, 2020).
- Consent is rarely depicted in pornographic media nor is an expression of affection (Bridges, 2019).
- The primary reason men don’t talk about their pornography use is the guilt and shame associated with it (Sniewski & Farvid, 2020).
How Does Porn Affect Mental Health?
- Using pornography is associated with less satisfaction in relationships, less close relationships, more loneliness and more depression (Hesse & Floyd, 2019).
- Women who use pornography are more likely to have false or stereotyped views about rape and are more self-conscious about their bodies (Maas & Dewey, 2018).
- In a study looking at brain scans of males, neurologists found that the brain activity among heavy porn users showed a behavioral addiction, much like substance and gambling addiction (Gola, Wordecha, Sescousse, Lew-Starowicz, Kossowski, Wypych, Makeig, Potenza & Marchewka, 2017).
- Women whose partners use pornography are more likely to have eating disorders (Tylka & Calogero 2019).
- Men who have high levels of pornography use are less likely to get married than are men with moderate levels of use (Perry & Longest, 2018).
- The more a married person consumes pornography the less satisfied they are in their marriage (Perry, 2016).
How Common is Revenge Porn?
- 1 in 12 U.S. adults report that they have been a victim of “revenge porn.” 1 in 20 report perpetration of revenge porn (Ruvalcaba & Eaton, 2020).
- Women are more likely to be victims of revenge porn than men. Women who experience revenge porn report higher rates of psychological problems (Ruvalcaba & Eaton, 2020).
- 92% of victims of revenge porn are women (Uhl et al, 2018).
How Does Porn Affect Sex?
- People who watch pornography experience decreased levels of sexual satisfaction and experience erectile dysfunction at higher rates as compared to those who do not watch pornography regularly (Wery & Billieux, 2016).
- Regular consumers of pornography report lower levels of satisfaction with their sexual performance, questions about their virility, lower levels of self-esteem, and more body-image issues (Sun, Bridges, Johnson, & Ezzell, 2016).
- The more pornography people viewed, the less sexually satisfied they are (Wright, Bridges, Sun, Ezzell, & Johnson, 2017).
- With increased pornography use, people have more risky sex, more non-consensual sex, and less sexual intimacy (Braithwaite, Coulson, Keddington, & Fincham, 2015).
- Women whose partners use porn are less satisfied sexually, with their relationship in general, and with their bodies (Wright & Tokunaga, 2017).
- When adolescents are exposed to pornography, they are less likely to condoms if they engage in sexual intercourse. However, if these adolescents had conversations with their parents about the importance of wearing condoms, the “pornography effect” went away (Wright et al., 2020).
- Men who view pornography more frequently are less likely to use condoms during partnered sex (Wright et al, 2019).
- Adolescents who use pornography are more likely to be having sex than their abstaining counterparts (Wright & Vangeel, 2019).
- Pornography use leads to sexual dissatisfaction, being more critical of one’s body or that of one’s partner, increased pressure to perform, and less partnered sex (de Alarcon et al, 2019).
- Sexting is increasingly common among people age 18-29. In that age group, 38% of sent sext messages and 42% have received them. 15% of people have had their sext messages forwarded without their permission (Mori et al., 2020).
- Men with low self esteem are especially likely to use pornography as a way to over-conform to male norms like having emotional control and being self-reliant (Borgogna et al., 2020).
- The more pornography men view, the less satisfied they are with their partner – both generally and with their sexual relationship (Bridges, 2016).
- The more pornography a man watches, the more he also watches porn on a mobile device during a sexual encounter (Sun et al., 2015).
- The more time a man watches porn, the more likely he is to ask his partner to do things he saw in porn (Sun et al., 2015).
- The more a man watches porn, the more he has to think about what he saw in porn to remain aroused (Sun et al., 2015).
- The more a man watches porn, the more he is concerned with how he performs sexually. (Sun et al., 2015).
- The more men use porn, the less they enjoy sex and the worse they feel about how their body looks. (Sun et al., 2015).
- The most common behavior men ask female partners to do from what they learned is porn is to engage in anal sex. Females describe this as painful, risky, and coercive (Marston & Lewis, 2014).
Does Porn Cause ED?
- The more pornography men view the more likely they are to experience erectile dysfunction (Begovic, 2019).
- Men who end up having erectile dysfunction from porn tend to start using pornography during adolescence, begin using it daily to a point where only extreme content produces arousal. Men then reach a stage where they can only be aroused by extreme, fast paced pornography which leaves real sexual intercourse seeming undesirable. This lack of desirability leads to erectile dysfunction. Some men then give up pornography to “re-boot” and regain their ability to obtain and maintain an erection (Begovic, 2019).
- Men who use pornography almost daily have erectile dysfunction rates of 44% while those who use pornography less often have ED rates at 22% (Berger et al, 2019).
- Among adolescent boys 27% report having experienced erectile dysfunction (O’Sullivan et al., 2014).
- Among young adult men, 30% report erectile dysfunction (Mialon et al., 2012).
- Until recently, rates of ED among men under 40 were low. In 1999, rates were around 5%. This was before the Internet as we know it made pornography so easily accessible. Recent studies on ED show a rate of ED in men under 40 of 28-33% (Park et al., 2016).
- 60% of men who are addicted to pornography have erectile dysfunction with a woman, but not when they use pornography (Voon et al., 2014).
- In the 1940s, less than 1% of men under 30 had erectile dysfunction (Kinsey et al, 1948).
- In the 1990s, with more porn available, 7% of men under 30 had erectile dysfunction (Laumann et al., 1999).
- In the 2010’s, with Internet porn, 26% of male adolescents and 30% of men report ED (Mialon et al, 2012; O’Sullivan et al, 2014)
- In the U.S. military, 33% of men age 21-40 have ED (Wilcox et al, 2014).
- From 2004 to 2013, ED more than doubled in the military (Armed Forces Health Surveillance Center, 2014).
- Doctors report that in the 20th century, almost no men under 40 complained of ED. Today, one in four new ED patients are under the age of 40 (Capogrosso et al., 2013)
- Men who consume porn more than once a week have ED levels twice as high as men who consume less than once a week (Damiano et al., 2015).
How Does Porn Affect the Brain?
- Studies of the brain show that if someone is addicted to pornography they tend to have problems at work and with carrying out matters of daily living (DeSousa & Lodha, 2017).
- Brian science has shown that people addicted to pornography have their past maps for normal sexuality rewired and reinforced by pornography to prefer more explicit, graphic images in order to maintain arousal (DeSousa & Lodha, 2017).
- Brian science has found that the more hours per week someone uses pornography, the less gray matter volume they have in their brain. In addition, connected tissues that are associated with healthy brain functioning begin to deteriorate with increasing hours of use (DeSousa & Lodha, 2017).
- Empirical evidence shows that the psychological and neurobiological aspects of addictive disorders also happen with pornography use (Brand, 2019).
- In a sample of older men, researchers found that ¼ go through withdrawal when they can’t access pornography (Calvo et al, 2019).
- Among adolescents age 12-16, pornography addiction impairs recent verbal memory (Prawiroharijo et al, 2019).
- Over time, pornography use re-routes the neural pathways in the brain to prefer sexual images over people (Wilson, 2015).
- The more people watch pornography, the more their brains shrink, particularly in the areas responsible for motivation and decision-making (Kuhn & Gallinat, 2014).
- Viewing porn slows down short-term memory (Laier et al, 2013).
- Continued, addictive use of pornography, stimulates brain chemicals to tell the body to seek more extreme porn. (Eberstadt & Layden, 2010.
Does Porn Affect Religious Beliefs?
- The more pornography that parents, particularly fathers, consume the less time they spend talking or reading about religion with their children. Thus, pornography may threaten the transmission of religious heritage from parents to children (Perry, 2015).
- Porn use is increasing among adults in general, including among those who identify as Evangelical Christians. However, porn use has remained constant for the last 30 years for those Evangelicals who are most theologically conservative and faithful to their religious beliefs (Perry & Schleifer, 2018).
- The more frequently men view pornography, the less committed they are to their religion. In addition, the more frequently men view pornography, the less likely they are to hold a leadership position in their congregation during the following 6 years (Perry, 2018).
- The more religious men are, the less frequently they use pornography. And the less frequently they use pornography, the less likely they are to sexually harass women online (Hagen, Thompson, & Williams, 2018).
- The more religious one’s spouse is, the less they view pornography. The study author suggests that spousal religiosity may decrease pornography viewing among married Americans by promoting greater religious intimacy and unity between the couple, consequently decreasing one’s interest or opportunities to view pornography (Perry, 2017).
- The more men were motivated to be religious because it could help their social standing, the more they use pornography (Short et al., 2015).
- The more men and women are motivated to be religious for selfless reasons, with a desire to have one’s beliefs and behavior match, the less they view pornography (Foubert & Rizzo, 2013; Short et al., 2015).
- The more boys and girls are integrated into their religious group, school, family, and community, the less they consume pornography (Mesch, 2009).
Is Sexting Bad?
- One in five sext messages are pictures of children 15 years old or younger; almost all of girls, almost all taken with a webcam (Internet Watch Foundation, 2015).
- Sexters are 4.5 times more likely to have had unprotected sex, four times more likely to view pornography, and about 2.5 times more likely to chat online with people they don’t know (Crimmins & Seigfried-Spellar, 2014).
How Much Money Do Pornographers Make?
- Worldwide pornography revenues were $100 billion annually (Ropelato, 2010). This is more than the combined revenues of Microsoft, Google, Amazon, eBay, Yahoo, Apple, and Netflix (DeKeseredy & Corsianos, 2016).
- In the U.S., the porn industry makes $13 billion annually. That is more than the National Football League, Major League Baseball, and the National Basketball Association combined (Ropelato, 2010).
- Child pornography accounts for 20% of the profits in the pornography industry (U.S. House of Representatives, 2006).
Are Video Games Bad?
- Online video games often objectify women and represent them in a stereotypically sexual way. Playing such games is associated with a greater likelihood of committing sexual violence (Burnay, et al., 2019).
- Men who play sexual video games are more likely to support rape myths and are more likely to say that they would rape under certain circumstances (Guggisberg, 2020).
- Sexually explicit video games have been shown to lead to sexual violence through imitation (Ivory, et al., 2017).
How Does Porn Affect Teenagers?
- Initial studies show that the adolescent brain is more sensitive to sexually explicit material than adult brains (Brown & Wisco, 2019).
- A review of 19 studies found that adolescents who view online pornography are more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviors and to have anxiety or depression (Principi et al., 2019).
- Among adolescents, pornography use increases with age, especially with boys. Adolescents who attend religious services frequently are less likely to view pornography (Rasmussen & Bierman, 2016).
- Adolescents who use pornography are more likely to commit sexual violence (Peter & Valkenburg, 2016; Ybarra & Thompson, 2017).
- Adolescents who use pornography are more likely to have disturbed family relationships (Peter & Valkenburg, 2016).
- Males who report using pornography during adolescence followed by daily consumption of pornography often advance to viewing extreme content, including violence, to maintain arousal. Over time these men become less interested in physical intercourse as it is viewed as bland and uninteresting. Men then lose the ability to have sex with a real life partner. Some who give up pornography have successfully “re-booted” and regained their ability to have erections with a partner (Begovic, 2019).
- Boys who view pornography are more likely to be involved in sexting—sending sexually explicit messages and images (Stanley et al., 2016).
- Boys’ regular viewing of pornography is associated with increased sexual coercion and abuse (Stanley et al., 2016).
- In people aged 10-21, continuing exposure to violent pornography leads to sexual harassment, sexual assault, coercive sex, attempted rape, and rape (Ybarra & Thompson, 2017).
- Adolescents using pornography report diminished life satisfaction (Willoughby, Young-Petersen, & Leonhardt, 2018).
- Adolescents who view pornography become less religious over time (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- Adolescents who view pornography are more likely to have been sexually assaulted (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- Boys who regularly view pornography are more likely to perpetrate sexual assault (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- The more frequently adolescents view pornography, the more likely they are to attend religious services less frequently, the less importance their faith is to them, the less frequently they pray and feel close to God and the more religious doubts they have (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- Adolescents who are more attached to religious leaders have lower levels of pornography consumption (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- Adolescents who view pornography frequently are also more likely to have relationship problems with their peers (Alexandraki, et al., 2018).
- Boys who use pornography frequently are more likely to be overweight or obese (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- Adolescents who use pornography frequently have worse relationships with their parents, lower commitment to their family, believe their parents care less about them, and communicate less with their parents (Alexandraki et al., 2018).
- Adolescents who view pornography are more likely to begin sexual activity at an earlier age. This early onset of sexual activity is due to more permissive attitudes toward casual sex that are directly linked to their pornography use (Van Oosten, Jochen, & Vandenbosch, 2017).
- Asking adolescents if they use pornography has no effect on whether or not they will actually access pornography in the future (Koletic, Cohen, Stulhofer, & Kohut, 2019).
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